Bone cancer is rare and includes several types. Some bone cancers, including osteosarcoma and Ewing sarcoma, are seen most often in children and young adults. Explore the links on this page to learn about bone cancer treatment, statistics, research, and clinical trials.

Childhood Chordoma Treatment

General Information About Childhood Chordoma

  • Childhood chordoma is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissue found inside the spine.
  • Signs and symptoms of chordoma depend on where the tumor forms in the tissue in the spine.
  • Tests that examine the spine are used to diagnose chordoma.
  • Certain factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery).

Childhood chordoma is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissue found inside the spine.

Chordoma is a type of slow-growing tumor that forms anywhere along the spine, from the base of the skull (a bone called the clivus) to the tailbone. In children and adolescents, chordomas form most often in the tissue near the spine at the base of the skull or the tailbone, making them hard to remove completely with surgery.

Ewing Sarcoma Treatment

Undifferentiated round cell sarcoma usually occurs in the bones or the muscles that are attached to bones and that help the body move. There are three types of undifferentiated round cell sarcoma that are treated like Ewing sarcoma:

  • Undifferentiated round cell sarcoma with BCOR-CCNB3 rearrangements. This type of bone tumor usually forms in the pelvis, arms, or legs. It may spread to other parts of the body. In this type of round cell sarcoma, the BCOR gene is joined to the CCNB3 gene. To diagnose round cell sarcoma, the tumor cells are checked for this gene change.
  • Undifferentiated round cell sarcoma with CIC-DUX4 rearrangements. This type of soft tissue tumor usually forms in the trunk, arms, or legs. It is most common in males and in young adults between 21 and 40 years of age. In this type of round cell sarcoma, the CIC gene is joined to the DUX4 gene. To diagnose round cell sarcoma, the tumor cells are checked for this gene change.
  • Undifferentiated round cell sarcoma with CIC-NUTM1 rearrangements. This type of soft tissue tumor usually forms in the central nervous system, but it can also form in the trunk. It is most common in younger patients.

These and other signs and symptoms may be caused by Ewing sarcoma or by other conditions. Check with your child’s doctor if your child has any of the following:

  • Pain and/or swelling, usually in the arms, legs, chest, back, or pelvis.
  • A lump (which may feel soft and warm) in the arms, legs, chest, or pelvis.
  • Fever for no known reason.
  • A bone that breaks for no known reason.

Signs and symptoms of chordoma depend on where the tumor forms in the tissue in the spine.

These and other signs and symptoms may be caused by chordoma or by other conditions.

Check with your child’s doctor if your child has any of the following:

  • Headache.
  • Double vision.
  • Blocked or stuffy nose.
  • Trouble speaking.
  • Trouble swallowing.
  • Neck or back pain.
  • Pain down the back of the legs.
  • Numbness, tingling, or weakness of the arms and legs.
  • A change in bowel or bladder habits.

Certain factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery).

The prognosis depends on the following:

  • The child’s age.
  • Where the tumor forms in the tissue along the spine.
  • How the tumor responds to treatment.
  • Whether there were changes in bowel or bladder habits at diagnosis.
  • Whether the tumor has just been diagnosed or has recurred (come back).

What is Cancer?

  • Cancer can start almost anywhere in the human body, which is made up of trillions of cells. Normally, human cells grow and divide to form new cells as the body needs them. When cells grow old or become damaged, they die, and new cells take their place.

  • Cancer prevention is action taken to lower the risk of getting cancer. This can include maintaining a healthy lifestyle, avoiding exposure to known cancer-causing substances, and taking medicines or vaccines that can prevent cancer from developing.

  • Cancer can cause many different symptoms. Most often these symptoms are not caused by cancer, but by benign tumors or other problems. If you have symptoms that last for a couple of weeks, your doctor will do a physical exam and order tests or other procedures to find out what is causing your symptoms.