Myeloproliferative neoplasms and myelodysplastic syndromes are diseases of the blood cells and bone marrow. Sometimes both conditions are present. Explore the links on this page to learn about their treatment, research, and clinical trials.

Myelodysplastic Syndromes Treatment

  • Myelodysplastic syndromes are a group of cancers in which immature blood cells in the bone marrow do not mature or become healthy blood cells.
  • The different types of myelodysplastic syndromes are diagnosed based on certain changes in the blood cells and bone marrow.
  • Age and past treatment with chemotherapy or radiation therapy affect the risk of a myelodysplastic syndrome.
  • Signs and symptoms of a myelodysplastic syndrome include shortness of breath and feeling tired.
  • Tests that examine the blood and bone marrow are used to detect (find) and diagnose myelodysplastic syndromes.
  • Certain factors affect prognosis and treatment options.

Myelodysplastic syndromes are a group of cancers in which immature blood cells in the bone marrow do not mature or become healthy blood cells.

In a healthy person, the bone marrow makes blood stem cells (immature cells) that become mature blood cells over time.

A blood stem cell may become a lymphoid stem cell or a myeloid stem cell. A lymphoid stem cell becomes a white blood cell. A myeloid stem cell becomes one of three types of mature blood cells:

  • Red blood cells that carry oxygen and other substances to all tissues of the body.
  • Platelets that form blood clots to stop bleeding.
  • White blood cells that fight infection and disease.

In a patient with a myelodysplastic syndrome, the blood stem cells (immature cells) do not become mature red blood cells, white blood cells, or platelets in the bone marrow. These immature blood cells, called blasts, do not work the way they should and either die in the bone marrow or soon after they go into the blood. This leaves less room for healthy white blood cells, red blood cells, and platelets to form in the bone marrow. When there are fewer healthy blood cells, infection, anemia, or easy bleeding may occur.

Chronic Myeloproliferative Neoplasms Treatment

  • Myeloproliferative neoplasms are a group of diseases in which the bone marrow makes too many red blood cells, white blood cells, or platelets.
  • There are 6 types of chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms.
  • Tests that examine the blood and bone marrow are used to diagnose chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms.

There are 6 types of chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms.

The type of myeloproliferative neoplasm is based on whether too many red blood cells, white blood cells, or platelets are being made. Sometimes the body will make too many of more than one type of blood cell, but usually one type of blood cell is affected more than the others are. Chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms include the following 6 types:

  • Chronic myelogenous leukemia.
  • Polycythemia vera.
  • Primary myelofibrosis (also called chronic idiopathic myelofibrosis).
  • Essential thrombocythemia.
  • Chronic neutrophilic leukemia.
  • Chronic eosinophilic leukemia.

These types are described below. Chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms sometimes become acute leukemia, in which too many abnormal white blood cells are made.

Myelodysplastic/ Myeloproliferative Neoplasms Treatment

  • Myelodysplastic/myeloproliferative neoplasms are a group of diseases in which the bone marrow makes too many white blood cells.
  • Myelodysplastic/myeloproliferative neoplasms have features of both myelodysplastic syndromes and myeloproliferative neoplasms.
  • There are different types of myelodysplastic/myeloproliferative neoplasms.
  • Tests that examine the blood and bone marrow are used to detect (find) and diagnose myelodysplastic/myeloproliferative neoplasms.

There are different types of myelodysplastic/myeloproliferative neoplasms.

The 3 main types of myelodysplastic/myeloproliferative neoplasms include the following:

  • Chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML).
  • Juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia (JMML).
  • Atypical chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML).

When a myelodysplastic/myeloproliferative neoplasm does not match any of these types, it is called myelodysplastic/myeloproliferative neoplasm, unclassifiable (MDS/MPN-UC).

Myelodysplastic/myeloproliferative neoplasms may progress to acute leukemia.

What is Cancer?

  • Cancer can start almost anywhere in the human body, which is made up of trillions of cells. Normally, human cells grow and divide to form new cells as the body needs them. When cells grow old or become damaged, they die, and new cells take their place.

  • Cancer prevention is action taken to lower the risk of getting cancer. This can include maintaining a healthy lifestyle, avoiding exposure to known cancer-causing substances, and taking medicines or vaccines that can prevent cancer from developing.

  • Cancer can cause many different symptoms. Most often these symptoms are not caused by cancer, but by benign tumors or other problems. If you have symptoms that last for a couple of weeks, your doctor will do a physical exam and order tests or other procedures to find out what is causing your symptoms.