Testicular cancer most often begins in germ cells (cells that make sperm). It is rare and is most frequently diagnosed in men 20-34 years old. Most testicular cancers can be cured, even if diagnosed at an advanced stage. Explore the links on this page to learn more about testicular cancer screening, treatment, statistics, and clinical trials.
Childhood Testicular Cancer Treatment
These and other signs and symptoms may be caused by testicular cancer or by other conditions.
Check with your child’s doctor if your child has any of the following:
- Painless lump in the testicles.
- Early signs of puberty.
- Enlarged breasts.
Testicular Cancer Treatment
- Testicular cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of one or both testicles.
- Health history can affect the risk of testicular cancer.
- Signs and symptoms of testicular cancer include swelling or discomfort in the scrotum.
- Tests that examine the testicles and blood are used to detect (find) and diagnose testicular cancer.
- Certain factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options.
- Treatment for testicular cancer can cause infertility.
Testicular cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of one or both testicles.
The testicles are 2 egg-shaped glands located inside the scrotum (a sac of loose skin that lies directly below the penis). The testicles are held within the scrotum by the spermatic cord, which also contains the vas deferens and vessels and nerves of the testicles.
The testicles are the male sex glands and produce testosterone and sperm. Germ cells within the testicles produce immature sperm that travel through a network of tubules (tiny tubes) and larger tubes into the epididymis (a long coiled tube next to the testicles) where the sperm mature and are stored.
Almost all testicular cancers start in the germ cells. The two main types of testicular germ cell tumors are seminomas and nonseminomas. These 2 types grow and spread differently and are treated differently. Nonseminomas tend to grow and spread more quickly than seminomas. Seminomas are more sensitive to radiation. A testicular tumor that contains both seminoma and nonseminoma cells is treated as a nonseminoma.
Testicular cancer is the most common cancer in men 20 to 35 years old.
Health history can affect the risk of testicular cancer.
Anything that increases the chance of getting a disease is called a risk factor. Having a risk factor does not mean that you will get cancer; not having risk factors doesn’t mean that you will not get cancer. Talk with your doctor if you think you may be at risk. Risk factors for testicular cancer include:
- Having had an undescended testicle.
- Having had abnormal development of the testicles.
- Having a personal history of testicular cancer.
- Having a family history of testicular cancer (especially in a father or brother).
- Being white.
Signs and symptoms of testicular cancer include swelling or discomfort in the scrotum.
These and other signs and symptoms may be caused by testicular cancer or by other conditions. Check with your doctor if you have any of the following:
- A painless lump or swelling in either testicle.
- A change in how the testicle feels.
- A dull ache in the lower abdomen or the groin.
- A sudden build-up of fluid in the scrotum.
- Pain or discomfort in a testicle or in the scrotum.
Stages of Testicular Cancer
- After testicular cancer has been diagnosed, tests are done to find out if cancer cells have spread within the testicles or to other parts of the body.
- There are three ways that cancer spreads in the body.
- Cancer may spread from where it began to other parts of the body.
- An inguinal orchiectomy is done in order to know the stage of the disease.
- The following stages are used for testicular cancer:
- Stage 0
- Stage I
- Stage II
- Stage III
Testicular cancer is the most common cancer in men aged 15 to 34 years.
Testicular cancer is very rare, but it is the most common cancer found in men between the ages of 15 and 34. White men are four times more likely than black men to have testicular cancer
Testicular Cancer Screening
- Tests are used to screen for different types of cancer when a person does not have symptoms.
- There is no standard or routine screening test for testicular cancer.
- Screening tests for testicular cancer are being studied in clinical trials.